Vredeburg

Fort Vredeburg Museum is a fortress which was built in 1765 by the VOC in Yogyakarta during the colonial period VOC. This historic building is located in front of the Great House (one of seven presidential palace in Indonesia) and the Sultanate of Yogyakarta Sultan Palace called Kraton. This fortress built by the VOC as a center of government and the defense of the Dutch governor at the time. The fort is surrounded by a moat that can still be seen until now.
This square-shaped fort has a monitor in the four corners of the tower. In the past, and also the Dutch East India Company troops often patrol around the walls.
Now, the fort became a museum. In a number of buildings in the fort there are dioramas on the history of Indonesia.

Vredeburg fortress stands is closely related to the birth of Yogyakarta Sultanate. February 13, 1755 Giyanti Agreement which berrhasil resolve disputes between Susuhunan Pakubuwono III to Prince Mangkubumi (lane I will) is the result of Dutch politics that always wants to interfere in domestic affairs of the kings of Java at that time. Name Giyanti Agreement, because the treaty was agreed in Giyanti Village, a village located near Surakarta.

Agreement that they put out for interfering VOCs always have the final goal to divide and pit the parties concerned. Similarly Giyanti agreement. Dutch man who was instrumental in the birth Giyanti Agreement is Nicolaas Harting, who was Governor of the Director of the North Coast of Java (Gouverneur en Directeur van Java’s noordkust) since March 1754.

In essence the agreement is a manifestation of the attempt to divide the kingdom of Mataram into two parts, namely Kasunanan Sultanate of Surakarta and Yogyakarta. To further Yogyakarta Sultanate ruled by Prince Mangkubumi who then hold a lane Senopati Ing Alogo Adul Gama Rachman Sayidin Panata Khalifatulah I. Being governed by Kasunanan Surakarta Pakubowono III.

The first step taken by the lane I was immediately ordered to build palace. With titahnya Emperor immediately ordered that there is open forest hamlets Beringan Pacetokan. Lane I announce that wilyah the territory was named Ngayogyakarta Adiningrat (Ngayogyakarta) with capital of Yogyakarta. The selection of this name is meant to honor the historic sites that are on Forest Beringan j = age of the late Sri Susuhunan Amangkurat Jawi (Amangkurat IV) is a lovely small town. Inside the palace there is the building that was known for Garjitowati. Then in the days of Sri Susuhunan Pakubowono II reigns Kartasura pesanggrahan name was replaced with Ngayogya. At that time used as a dismissal of the bodies of nobles who will be buried in Imogiri.

This small forest is initially resting place Sunan Pakubuwono II with Garjitowati Pesanggrahan name. To further Ayogya he replaced it with a name (or Ngayogya). Name Ngayogyakarta interpreted the word “Ayuda” and the word “Karta”. The word “a” means not and “Yuda” means war. So “Ayuda” implies there is no war or peace. While the “Karta” means secure and peaceful. So Ngayogyakarta can be interpreted as “a safe and peaceful city.”
Besides as a powerful warlord lane I is also a great builder. Kraton Yogyakarta Sultanate first built on October 9, 1755. During the ongoing construction of the palace, the Sultan and the family lived in Gamping Ambarketawang Guesthouse, approximately one year. On Thursday Pahing, dated October 7, 1756 but not finished perfectly, the Sultan and the family is pleased to occupy it. Inauguration at the time the king and his family occupied the palace is marked by candra sangkala “Dwi Naga Rasa Singh.” In the same year java 1682, dated 13 Jimakir which coincides with the date of October 7, 1756.
After the palace began to be occupied and then immediately followed up also other supporting buildings. Palace surrounded by a thick wall. Inside are several buildings with different shapes and functions. Building the residence of sultans and their close relatives called Prabayeksa, completed 1756. Sitihinggil and Exhibition Building was completed in 1757. The gate connecting the ascetic and Kemagangan Fund completed in 1761 and 1762. The Great Mosque was founded in 1771. Large fortress surrounding the palace was completed in 1777. Ward Kencana completed in 1792. Thus the Yogyakarta palace stood with the development of ever happens from time to time.

See very rapid progress will kingdom founded by Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, a sense of concern to the Dutch began to emerge. So the Dutch party proposes to the Sultan for permission to build a fort near the palace. Development is the pretext for the Netherlands to maintain the security of the palace and its surroundings. However, behind the pretext that the real purpose of the Netherlands is to facilitate the control of all the developments happening in the palace. The location of the castle which is only one cannon firing distance of the palace and its location overlooking the main road to the palace to be an indication that the function can be used as a fortress castle stragi, intimidation, assault and blockade. It could be argued that the establishment of the fort was intended to keep watch at any time if the sultan looked away against the Netherlands. The amount of power that is hidden behind the political contract that is born in every treaty with the Dutch seemed to be a “force” a tough fight by any indigenous leaders in the Dutch colonial period. In this case also include lane I. Therefore, applications for permission to build a fortress Netherlands, granted. Before the castle was built at its current location (Vredeburg Castle Museum), at the request of the Netherlands in 1760, Sultan HB I have built a fort a very simple square. In the four corners made the place of custody, called seleka or bastion. The four corners of the Sultan was named Jayawisesa (northwest corner), Jayapurusa (northeast corner), Jayaprakosaningprang (southwest corner) and Jayaprayitna (southeast corner).

According to Nicolas Harting a Governor of the Director of the North Coast of Java in Semarang, the fort is the situation is still very simple. Wall of soil reinforced with supporting poles from coconut and palm tree wood. The building in it consists of bamboo and wood with a roof ilalang.Dalam further development while WH Ossenberch replace Nicolas Hartingh, in 1765 proposed to the Sultan for the fort strengthened into a more permanent building to better ensure security. The proposal is granted, then the construction of the castle is done under the supervision of a Dutch scientist named Ir building. Frans Haak. Castle construction began in 1767. According to development plans will be completed that year. But in reality the development process was running very slow and only completed in 1787. This happens because at that time who are willing to hold the Sultan of materials and manpower in the construction of the fort, was occupied with the construction of Yogyakarta Kingdom so that materials and energy are allocated more promised in the palace building. When finished building the fort that has been enhanced is given the name Rustenburg which means “Fortress resort”.

In 1867 in Yogyakarta occurred a great earthquake, so many destroyed several large buildings such as Resident Building (built in 1824), Pal Putih Monument, and Fort Rustenburg and other buildings. The buildings are soon to be rebuilt. The fort was held immediately Rustenburg improvements in some parts of the damaged building. When finished building the fort which was originally named Rustenburg changed to Vredeburg which means “Fortress of Peace”. The name is taken as a manifestation of the relationship between the Sultanate of Yogyakarta with the Dutch side that is not the time to attack each other.

From the beginning of the castle remains as built, namely a square. At the four corners of care built space called “seleka” or “bastion”. The gate faces west fort surrounded by a moat. Inside are the buildings house officers, soldiers dormitory, warehouse logistics, warehouse gunpowder, hospitals and home resident soldiers. In Vredeburg occupied about 500 soldiers, including medical officers and paramedics. Besides, in the reign of the Dutch East Indies is used as a sanctuary of the resident who was on duty in Yogyakarta. It is very possible because the resident office located opposite the location of Fort Vredeburg.Sejalan with berjadi political developments in Indonesia from time to time, then there is also a change of ownership status and function of the building Vredeburg. The chronological development of the status of land and buildings since the beginning of the construction Vredeburg (1760) until the collapse of the power of the Dutch East Indies (1942) are as follows:

Year 1760 – 1765
At the beginning of its construction in 1760 the status of the land is owned Sultanate. But in its use granted to the Dutch (VOC) under the supervision of Nicolaas Harting, Governor of the Director of the North Coast of Java.

Year 1765 – 1788
Formal judicial status of land and equipment owned by Sultanate but the de facto control of the castle and the land held by the Dutch. Governor’s proposal W.H. Van Ossenberg (substitute Nicolaas Hartingh) for building the fort is more refined, implemented in 1767. This period is the period Castle a more targeted improvement in one form stronghold.

Year 1788 – 1799
In this period the status of formal judicial fort land and equipment owned by Sultanate, the de facto controlled by the Dutch. This period is when used properly by the Dutch fort (VOC). Bankruptcy of the VOC in 1799 led to the mastery of the fort was taken over by Bataafsche Republic (the Netherlands). So the de facto become the property of the Dutch royal government.

Year 1799 – 1807
Status formal judicial fort land and equipment owned by Sultanate, but the use of the fort is a de facto become the property of Bataafsche Republic (the Netherlands) under the Governor of Van Den Burg. The fort still work as a base defense.

Year 1807 – 1811
In this period the fort was taken over its management by the Royal Holland. So the formal judicial status of the land still belongs Sultanate, but the de facto become the property of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands under the Governor Daendels.

Year 1811 – 1816
When British rule in Indonesia 1811 – 1816, for while the British occupied the fort under the Governor-General Rafles. But in a short time the Dutch to take over. Formal judicial Sultanate’s permanent fortress.

Year 1816 – 1942
Status of land still owned Sultanate fortress, but the de facto held by the Dutch government. Because of the strong Dutch influence the Sultanate party can not do much in overcoming the problem of possession of the fort. Until finally the Japanese Army troops occupied the fort in 1942 after the Dutch surrendered to the Japanese with marked with kalijati Agreement in March 1942 in West Java.

Japanese Period
The fall of Singapore to the Japanese, making the position of the island of Java as the center of the Dutch East Indies government threatened. When about to attack Indonesia, Japan, earlier ruled the oil-producing regions such as the Tarakan in East Kalimantan, Bunyu Island and Balikpapan. Mastery of these areas is essential to support the interests of war by Japanese forces in the Pacific. After Borneo, Sumatra, Japan then attacked the Dumai, New Feed and Palembang. Last new Japanese attacked the island of Java by landing troops in Banten, Indramayu and Banyuwangi. In a short time managed to occupy a strategic place on the island of Java. Until finally, on March 8, 1942, the Dutch surrendered unconditionally to the Japanese in kalijati, West Java. So since that’s the Japanese power in Indonesia.
The period of Japanese occupation in Yogyakarta held from March 6, 1942. They immediately occupied the government buildings originally occupied by the Dutch government. The Japanese occupation of the city of Yogyakarta is running very smoothly without any resistance. With the motto of the Three A (Nipon Light of Asia, Asian Leaders and Nipon Nipon Protector Asia), they do the parade by walking and biking to move toward the center of the city of Yogyakarta. This is done to attract the sympathy of the people of Yogyakarta.
March 7, 1942, the Japanese government imposed the Law No. 1 of 1942 that the position of regional leaders still recognized but is under the supervision Kooti Zium Tjokan Kyoku (Japan Governor) who is based in Kantai Tjokan Building (Great House). Center for Army forces stationed in Japan in addition to Kotabaru also in focus at Fort Vredeburg. Japanese troops stationed in Fort Vredeburg is Kempeitei the army’s famous choice of hard and cruel.
In addition Vredeburg fort was also used as a place of detention for prisoners of the Dutch and the Indo Dutch who were arrested. Indonesian politicians also were arrested for holding a successful campaign against Japan.
In order to meet the need of weapons, the Japanese army to bring weapons from Semarang. Before distribution to the posts which require a first in the store in Fort Vredeburg. Gunpowder warehouse located in every corner of the fort except in the northeast corner. It was the consideration that the security in the region more secure. Placement of gunpowder warehouse in every corner of the fort is intended to ease when the war abruptly.
Japanese mastery over Vredeburg lasted from 1942 until 1945, when the proclamation has been resounding and the nationalization of the buildings which occupied Japan began to be implemented. During that although the de facto controlled by Japan but formal judicial status of the land still belongs Sultanate.
From the description it can be said that during the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) building functioned as a fortress Vredeburg Kempeitei army headquarters, ammunition storehouse and home detention for the Dutch and the Indo RI Netherlands as well as the politicians who oppose the Japanese.
[Edit] Period of Independence
Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia August 17, 1945 have been reverberating in Jl. Pegangsaan 56 East Jakarta. The news came to Yogyakarta through Domei News Yogyakarta Branch Office (now the Regional Library, Jl. Malioboro Yogyakarta). Head of the Yogyakarta branch Domei news agency at that time were Japanese. Meanwhile, head of radio is Warsono, assisted by other forces, namely Soeparto, Soetjipto, Abdullah and Umar Sanusi.
At noon that day, news of the proclamation of Indonesian independence was greeted with relief by all the people of Yogyakarta. Coupled with the release of the Statement of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (Statement 5 September 1945) which is then followed by Sri Paku Alam VIII, which contains support for the establishment of a new country, the Republic of Indonesia, the spirit of the people of the more fiery.
As a result there spontaneous actions such as flag raising, deprivation of buildings as well as disarmament of Japan. The strength of the Japanese troops who are in Yogyakarta, led to armed clashes as happened in Kotabaru Yogyakarta. The seizure action vasilitas building or other Japanese-owned, the castle Vredeburg also become one of the targets of action. After the fort occupied by Indonesia for the next party submitted to the agency handling the military which is then used as a dormitory and headquarters troops joined in the forces with the staff code of “Q” under the Youth First Lieutenant Commander Radio, which is in charge of military supplies. So it is not impossible if during this period besides Vredeburg functioned as the headquarters as well as warehouse supplies including weapons, ammunition etc.. In 1946 in the complex Vredeburg Army Hospital was established to serve victims of the fighting. But in its development of the hospital also serves soldiers and their families.
When in 1946 Indonesia experienced a shortage of political conditions when differences in perceptions of the meaning of revolution is happening, then meletuslah event known as “event July 3, 1946”, the coup attempt led by Major General Soedarsono. Because it was unsuccessful then the leaders involved in these events such as Mohammad Yamin, Tan Malaka and Soedarsono arrested. As political prisoners they had been stationed at Fort Vredeburg.
At the time of the Dutch Military Aggression II (December 19, 1948) Vredeburg who was used as military headquarters targeted RI bombing planes Netherlands. TKR offices within it were destroyed. Having mastered Maguwo airfield, Dutch soldiers who joined in T Brigade led by Colonel Van Langen successfully held the city of Yogyakarta, including Fort Vredeburg. Furthermore Vredeburg be used as Dutch army headquarters belonging to the IVG (Informatie Voor Geheimen), the Dutch secret service troops. Besides Vredeburg also functioned as a dormitory and Dutch soldiers are also used for storing heavy weapons such as tanks, armored and other military vehicles.
When there is a general attack March 1, 1949, in an effort to demonstrate to the international community that Indonesia and the TNI is still there, Vredeburg become one of the targets among other buildings controlled by the Dutch as the Post Office, Railway Station, Hotel Toegoe, Great House , and Tangsi Kotabaru. Approximately 6 (six) hours of the city of Yogyakarta can be mastered by the TNI and the people of fighters. Only after the Dutch Army reinforcements brought in from Magelang came to Yogyakarta, the TNI and the people backed out of the city and conduct guerrilla struggle.
Although able to occupy the city of Yogyakarta, only about 6 hours, but politically these attacks have an extraordinary meaning. Netherlands lie that has been covered up eventually discovered, and opened the eyes of the international community. So begins the approval Roem – Royen (May 7, 1949), finally on 27 December 1949 the Dutch were forced to admit after the previous RIS sovereignty must go through a long process in RTC (Round Table Conference) held on 23 August – 2 November 1949. The process can not be separated with a large role in Banaran guerrilla radio transmitter, Playen, Gunung Kidul, namely Radio AURI PC-2.
After the Dutch left the city of Yogyakarta, Vredeburg controlled by APRI (Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia). Then the management of the fort handed over to the Military Academy in Yogyakarta. At that time, Ki Hajar Dewantara ever put forward his idea for Vredeburg used as a cultural event. But the idea was stalled because of the event “National Tragedy” Rebellion G 30 S / PKI in 1965. Left it for a while Vredeburg used as a place of political prisoners associated with the event G 30 S / PKI is directly under the supervision of enforcement, defense.
Building preservation plan Vredeburg began more evident after 1976 held the fort building feasibility study conducted by the Institute for Rural and Area Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. Having held research efforts towards the restoration of the building was the former Fort Vredeburg begin.
Dated August 9, 1980 the signing of the charter agreement between the Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX as the I and Dr. David Joseph (Education Minister) as the second party of the former Fort Vredeburg building utilization. Considering that the former building Vredeburg is a very large historic building in 1981 meant the former building Vredeburg be upheld as an object of cultural heritage based on the assessment of the Minister of Education and Culture No. 0224/U/1981 July 15, 1981. About utilization Vredeburg building, confirmed again by prof. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto (Education Minister of the Republic of Indonesia) on 5 November 1984 which said that former Vredeburg building will function as a museum of the National Struggle the custody of the Department of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia.
In accordance with the Charter Agreement and the letter of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX Number 359/HB/85 April 16, 1985 states that the spatial changes to the buildings inside the fort complex Vredeburg permitted in accordance with needs as a museum. To further restoration of the building made the former stronghold and later converted into a museum. In 1987 the museum had to be visited by the public. On 23 November 1992 the former building Vredeburg officially became the Museum of National Struggle by Special Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia (when the Professor. Dr. Fuad Hasan) Number 0475/O/1992 with the name of the Citadel Museum Yogyakarta.
Next In accordance with the Decree of the Minister of Culture and Tourism Number: KM 48/OT.001/MKP/2003 December 5, 2003 Museum Fort Vredeburg have Position, Duty and Function of a special museum is the Technical Implementation Unit based in the Ministry environment and Deputy Culture History and Archaeology in charge of implementing the collection, maintenance, preservation, research, presentation, publication of research results and provide guidance regarding the object and instructive cultural history of the struggle of Indonesia in the Yogyakarta area.
The chronological development of the land status and use of the fort Vredeburg since the Proclamation of Independence (1945) to be used as a specialized museum of history of struggle as follows:

Year 1945 – 1977
Status of land fort still belongs Sultanate of Yogyakarta. With diproklamasikannya independence in 1945, the fort was taken over by the military institution RI. In 1948 the fort was temporarily taken over by the Dutch military aggression in the second period (December 19, 1948). Time Attack General March 1, 1949 for an instant military overran the area around Fort Vredeburg. But not long after successfully held back by the Dutch until the Dutch withdrawal as a result of the Yogyakarta-approval Roem Royen (May 7, 1949). Furthermore, under the management Vredeburg APRI (Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia).

Year 1977 – 1992
In this period, ownership status and management of the fort was handed over from the enforcement, defense to the Local Government of Yogyakarta. Dated August 9, 1980 held the signing of the charter agreement on the use of the former building Vredeburg by Sri Sultan HB IX (side I) and Mendibud Dr. David Joseph (party II). Later reinforced by the Education Minister Prof statement. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto November 5, 1984, that former Vredeburg will function as a museum. In 1985 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX permits the holding of the building changes as needed. In 1987 the museum can be visited by the public.
In this period Vredeburg never be used as a venue for Jamboree Arts (26 to 28 August 1978), Education and training Dodiklat Police. Also been used as a headquarters and headquarters garrison 072 Army Battalion 403. Nevertheless formal judicial status of land and equipment owned by Sultanate.

From 1992 until now
Through the Decree of the Minister of Education Prof. RI. Dr. Fuad Hasan 0475/O/1992 number dated 23 November 1992 officially became Museum Special Vredeburg National Struggle under the name Castle Museum Yogyakarta. To improve the functionalization of this museum will begin on 5 September 1997 received an abundance to manage the Museum of Struggle Brontokusuman Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta, the Provincial State Museum Sonobudoyo DIY. Based on Decree of the Minister of Culture and Tourism Number: KM 48/OT.001/MKP/2003 December 5, 2003 Museum Fort Vredeburg a Technical Implementation Unit based in the Ministry and Deputy Culture History and Archaeology.

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